JOURNAL ARTICLE | Harvard Business Review | 82 | October 2004
Blue Ocean Strategy
Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil has profitably increased revenue twenty-two-fold over the last 10 years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed an uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. It created what the authors call a blue ocean a previously unknown market space.In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over; there is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans that is, all the industries already existing companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline, products turn into commodities and increasing competition turns the water bloody.There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis company and industry are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created.The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. Indeed, so powerful is blue ocean strategy that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.