This chapter provides a definition of talent competitiveness and outlines the context in which it emerged. It focuses on the output side, where the issue is how to capture the stock of human capital of a nation. The chapter explains how talent is conceptualized at the country level in terms of two types of skills that are reflected in educational systems and organizations: technical and generalist. Then the chapter addresses the impact of these two types of talent on economic performance. It also focuses on the input side by offering the rationale behind what authors call the four pillars or policy/practice levers of TC, namely attracting, developing, retaining, and building or adjusting the enabling context. It concludes with some remarks about how the concept of TC contributes to the emerging literature of macro talent management and how it can inform national debates about talent development.