Experience of Living Outside One’s Home Country and Adapting to a New Culture May Enhance Creative Thinking
Fontainebleau, France and Singapore, 4 May 2009 – Living in another country can be a cherished experience, but new research from INSEAD and Northwestern University suggests it might also help expand minds. This research, published by the American Psychological Association, is the first of its kind to look at the link between living abroad and creativity.
‘Gaining experience in foreign cultures has long been a classic prescription for artists interested in stimulating their imaginations or honing their crafts. But does living abroad actually make people more creative?’ asks the study’s lead author, William Maddux, PhD, an Assistant Professor of Organizational Behaviour at INSEAD. ‘It’s a longstanding question that we feel we’ve been able to begin answering through this research.’
Maddux and Adam Galinsky, PhD, from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, conducted five studies to test the idea that living abroad and creativity are linked. The findings appear in the May issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, published by the American Psychological Association.
In one study, master of business administration students at the Kellogg School were asked to solve the Duncker candle problem, a classic test of creative insight. In this problem, individuals are presented with three objects on a table placed next to a cardboard wall: a candle, a pack of matches and a box of tacks. The task is to attach the candle to the wall so that the candle burns properly and does not drip wax on the table or the floor. The correct solution involves using the box of tacks as a candleholder – one should empty the box of tacks and then tack it to the wall placing the candle inside.
The solution is considered a measure of creative insight because it involves the ability to see objects as performing different functions from what is typical (i.e., the box is not just for the tacks but can also be used as a stand). The results showed that the longer students had spent living abroad, the more likely they were to come up with the creative solution.
In another study, the researchers used a mock negotiation test involving the sale of a gas station. In this negotiation, a deal based solely on sale price was impossible because the minimum price the seller was willing to accept was higher than the buyer’s maximum. However, because the two parties’ underlying interests were compatible, a deal could be reached only through a creative agreement that satisfied both parties’ interests.
Here again, negotiators with experience living abroad were more likely to reach a deal that demanded creative insight. In both studies, time spent travelling abroad did not matter; only living abroad was related to creativity.
Maddux and Galinsky then ran a follow-up study to see why living abroad was related to creativity. With a group of MBA students at INSEAD, they found that the more students had adapted themselves to the foreign cultures when they lived abroad, the more likely they were to solve the Duncker candle task.
‘This shows us that there is some sort of psychological transformation that needs to occur when people are living in a foreign country in order to enhance creativity. This may happen when people work to adapt themselves to a new culture,’ said Galinsky.
Although these studies show a strong relationship between living abroad and creativity, they do not prove that living abroad and adapting to a new culture actually cause people to be more creative. ‘We just couldn’t randomly assign people to live abroad while others stay in their own country,’ said Maddux.
To help get at this question of what causes someone to be creative, the authors tried a technique called ‘priming.’ In two experiments, they asked groups of undergraduate students at the Sorbonne in Paris to recall and write about a time they had lived abroad or adapted to a new culture; other groups were asked to write about separate experiences, such as going to the supermarket, learning a new sport or simply observing but not adapting to a new culture.
The results showed that priming students to mentally recreate their past experiences living abroad or adapting to a new culture caused students, at least temporarily, to be more creative. For example, these students drew space aliens and solved word games more creatively than students primed to recall other experiences.
‘This research may have something to say about the increasing impact of globalisation on the world, a fact that has been hammered home by the recent financial crisis,’ said Maddux. ‘Knowing that experiences abroad are critical for creative output makes study abroad programs and job assignments in other countries that much more important, especially for people and companies that put a premium on creativity and innovation to stay competitive.’
Article: ‘Cultural Borders and Mental Barriers: The Relationship Between Living Abroad and Creativity,’ William W. Maddux, PhD, INSEAD; Adam D. Galinsky, PhD, Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 96, No. 5.
(Full text of the article is available from the APA Public Affairs Office and here ).
About INSEAD, The Business School for the World
As one of the world’s leading and largest graduate business schools, INSEAD brings together people, cultures and ideas from around the world to change lives and transform organisations. This worldly perspective and cultural diversity are reflected in all aspects of its research and teaching.
With two campuses in Asia (Singapore) and Europe (France), two centres in Israel and Abu Dhabi, and an office in New York, INSEAD extends the reach of its business education and research across three continents. Its 137 renowned faculty members from 35 countries inspire more than 1,000 degree participants in our MBA, Executive MBA and PhD programmes. In addition, more than 9,500 executives participate in INSEAD’s executive education programmes. With the INSEAD-Wharton Alliance, INSEAD delivers MBA and co-branded executive education programmes on Wharton's U.S. campuses in Philadelphia and San Francisco, as well as on its campuses in Asia and Europe.
Today’s organisations need leaders with the knowledge and sensitivity to operate anywhere in the world. This is why business turns to INSEAD – to develop the next generation of transcultural leaders.
More information about INSEAD can be found at www.insead.edu.
About American Psychological Association
The American Psychological Association, in Washington, D.C., is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States and is the world's largest association of psychologists. APA's membership includes more than 150,000 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Through its divisions in 54 subfields of psychology and affiliations with 60 state, territorial and Canadian provincial associations, APA works to advance psychology as a science, as a profession and as a means of promoting human welfare.
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